MTU and MSS

Disclaimer: This information is posted as-is and the content should be referenced at your own risk


Special thanks to Aditya Patel

While dealing with MTU and MSS value of any normal interface type, such as Static and DHCP then the MTU default would be 1500 and MSS value would be 1500-40=1460 value. 

This is different in PPPOE case, we would need an additional 8 byte PPPoE i..e PPP-Max-Payload field and needs an additional 8 bytes and truncates the Ethernet MTU to 1492 and the value for MSS is 1452. 

Difference between Ethernet MTU and IP MTU. 

Ethernet MTU.

The main difference is interface MTU defined max packet size supported by an interface, while IP MTU is used to set MTU size of IP PACKET. Each interface has a default maximum packet size or MTU size. This number generally defaults to the largest size possible for that interface type.

IP MTU A.K.A MRU.

To set the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size of IP packets sent on an interface. The minimum is 128 bytes; the maximum depends on the interface medium.

 Changing the MTU value (with the MTU interface configuration command) can affect the IP MTU value. If the current IP MTU value is the same as the MTU value, and you change the MTU value, the IP MTU value will be modified automatically to match the new MTU. However, the reverse is not true; changing the IP MTU value has no effect on the value for the MTU command.

"The Maximum-Receive-Unit (MRU) option MUST NOT be negotiated to a larger size than 1492. Since Ethernet has a maximum payload size of 1500 octets, the PPPoE header is 6 octets and the PPP Protocol ID is 2 octets, the PPP MTU MUST NOT be greater than 1492." -> Taken from RFC 2516

Calculation

1. Interface MTU - default MTU size for an interface:

For PPPOE connection Ethernet MTU  = IP MTU + 8. 8 bytes for overhead

For Normal Connection Ethernet MTU  = IP MTU.

Mss value = IP MTU - 40.

So the difference between ethernet MTU and MSS value is 48, not 40.